In this success story, we are going to share Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino biography, known as Raphael (March 28 or April 06, 1483 – April 06, 1520), an Italian painter, and architect of the High Renaissance. Raphael’s works are admired for their tenderness, clarity, ease of composition, the perfection of form, and visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur. A man of extraordinary charisma brought up with good manners, Raphael was able to assimilate his influences into timeless works of art, securing his name in the trinity of great masters that he would have unquestionably surpassed had he not died so young.
Although, Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino is a full name of the painter, he is also known as Raffaello, Raphael Santi, Raphael Sanzio, Rafaello Sanzio, and Rafaello Santi.
The distinctive personality traits of Raphael are his eternal sweetness and eager helpfulness, a great friend and productive colleague – the type personality that one would always want to have by one’s side.
- Early Life
- Apprenticeship in Perugia
- Florentine Period
- The Renaissance in Rome
- Applying Classical Influences
- Architecture and Other Projects
- The Transfiguration Painting
- Personal Life and Death
Some sources say that Raphael was born on April 06, 1483, in Urbino, a small provincial town in central Italy. According to Vasari, he was born on a “Good Friday” which in 1483 fell to March 28. His father, Giovanni de’ Santi (c. 1435 – August 01, 1494), was then a well-renowned painter and poet, giving him close ties to the intellectual circles of the prestigious Urbino court. Giovanni, being a respectable and well-mannered man, brought up his only son to be no less. For Giovanni, it was important that in his infant years Raphael only had his mother’s milk and not that of a nurse. Being raised strictly within the boundaries of his family and his equals, Raphael was spared the rough manners of people of poor condition.
The Urbino Background
In the 1400s, Duke Federico da Montefeltro had made Urbino somewhat a center of culture for the Italian Renaissance. During his time as a Duke, he had assembled a large humanistic court which attracted considerable talents of the Renaissance to visit and work in Urbino. Although major artists would more visibly influence Raphael in Florence and Rome, the scene in Urbino laid the groundwork for all his subsequent learning.
Raphael’s father Giovanni was well educated and aware of contemporary artists that dominated in the era. Vasari described him as being “a painter of no great merit, but of good intelligence and well able to show his son the right way” Giovanni had his preferences amongst the artists, and the influence of some of these people is present in Raphael’s later works. They include Andrea Mantegna, Luca Signorelli, Leonardo Da Vinci, and Pietro Perugino, who would then become Raphael’s mentor. Giovanni was also fond of artists from the Netherlands such as Jan van Eyck and Rogier van der Weyden.
Giovanni’s presence in the prestigious court of Urbino gave the young Raphael a privileged upbringing within the arts. When Raphael was in his early teenage years, his father began to teach him painting. Raphael learned quickly, and Giovanni would allow him to assist in completing various works for the state of Urbino. A self-portrait that is believed to be from Raphael’s teenage years demonstrates his early precocious talent
Eventually, Giovanni realized that he could teach his son no more, and became determined to set him up Pietro Perugino (1450 – 1523) who was then considered one of the greatest painters of his time. According to Vasari, Giovanni traveled to Perugia and occupied his time by doing some works in the local church of S. Francesco until Perugino returned from Rome.
Being “courteous and well-bred,” Giovanni met Perugino, and expressed his wishes at a fitting opportunity, in the most diplomatic manner. Pietro Perugino, “who was also courteous and a friend of young men of promise,” agreed to take Raphael as his apprentice. Giovanni returned to Urbino with great joy, to pick up the boy and take him to Perugia. Raphael’s mother loved him tenderly and wept bitterly as they were separated.
By the age of eleven, Raphael was an orphan. His mother Màgia died in 1491. His father Giovanni remarried and died soon after, on August 01, 1494. When not staying as an apprentice with a master, Raphael would live with his stepmother. Being well acquainted within the Urbino court, Raphael and his stepmother played a significant part in managing Giovanni’s workshop after his death.
Apprenticeship in Perugia
Scholars place the date of Raphael’s arrival to Perugia somewhere around 1495. By December 10, 1500, he had already been called a “master” and was commissioned to assist in the painting of the Baronci Altarpiece in Citta di Castello, a small town halfway between Perugia and Urbino. An acquaintance of his father was named in the commission. With only some cut sections and a preparatory drawing remaining, the Baronci Altarpiece painting was Raphael’s first documented work.
Around the same time, his master Perugino was executing frescoes on a commission in Perugia. Raphael, as part of his workshop, was able to acquire hands-on professional knowledge. Perugino was very fond of Raphael’s drawing method, as well as his famously good manners and behavior. While Raphael was studying, it is well known that he would imitate his master to the extent that his portraits were almost equal to Perugino in both style and-and technique. They would paint very thinly on skin areas and apply thick layers of paint using an oil varnish medium for the darker parts. There would often be an excess of resin in the varnish, and this caused certain parts of the painting to crack.
Having already given proof of his mastery, Raphael Santi received his first major commission somewhere between 1502 and 1504. He painted the Oddi Altarpiece of the Coronation of the Virgin for the Oddi Chappel in the church of San Francesco, Perugia. Being one of his early works, the painting has always been considered the work of Raphael that is closest to the style of his master Perugino. It was confiscated in 1797 during Napoleon’s invasion of Italy and returned to the Vatican in 1815.
The Perugino workshop operated in both Perugia and Florence, causing Pietro to venture back and forth often to maintain the business. During one of these ventures, Raphael left Perugia to go to Citta di Castello with some friends. Here he did two works, a panel in S. Agostino Church, and a Crucifixion in S. Domenico – another work that would have been indistinguishable from Perugino, had it not been signed.
Raphael is also known to have worked on small and exquisite cabinet paintings around that time for the Urbino court, and eventually began painting portraits and Madonnas. In 1502, Bernardino di Betto (who is better known as Pinturicchio, 1454 – 1513) invited Raphael to Siena. Pinturicchio had also been an apprentice of Perugino, and a great admirer of Raphael’s work, as well as his friend. He was commissioned to illustrate and paint frescoes in the Piccolomini Library of the Siena Cathedral, which tell the story of Siena’s “favorite son” Cardinal Enea Silvio Piccolomini , who would later become Pope Pius II. Pinturicchio regarded Raphael as an excellent draftsman and brought him to Siena to draw several draft cartoons for that work. Raphael’s time in Siena was short, as his fascination brought him to the flourishing City of Florence – where contemporary giants like Leonardo Da Vinci (April 15, 1452 – May 02, 1519) and Michelangelo (March 06, 1475 – February 18, 1564) were making their impact on the world of art.
There is a reference to a Florentine period in the history books, although it is unsure whether Raphael was ever a permanent resident. He was inspired by the city itself, as well as the works of art which he thought to be divine. Raphael quickly struck a friendship with a number young painters and was very well received, especially by Taddeo Taddei (1470 – 1529), who frequently invited him to his house. In gratitude, the courteous Raphael did two pictures for Taddeo in a style that showed how he was quickly transitioning and maturing from his Perugino roots. These works still reside in the house of the heirs of Taddeo.
Amongst Raphael’s Florentine works was the Madonna del Cardellino or Madonna of the Goldfinch (c. 1505-1506). He made this work for his friend Lorenzo Nasi, who had just gotten married. It displays a picture of a baby between the knees of the Virgin, to whom little St. John is offering a bird. Vividly colored and carefully finished, the exceptionality of the painting lies in its simple triangular geometry and the strikingly realistic depiction of the human flesh. Full of grace and divinity, the gift was greatly valued by Lorenzo.
On November 17, 1548, an earthquake crushed the house of Nasi and severely damaged the work. It was salvaged and quickly restored by Lorenzo’s son from the seventeen pieces found throughout the wreckage. Due to visible seams from the earthquake and layers of grime covering up up the original colors, the painting was taken to be restored again in 2002. It was placed in the Galleria del Uffizi in Florence where it resides since 2008.
Assimilation of the Florentine Influence
Slowly drawing away from the style of his former master, Raphael began absorbing the influence of Florentine art into his technique. From about 1505 and on, Raphael’s figures start gaining a monumentality similar to that of Fra Bartolomeo (March 28, 1472 – October 06, 1517), who was also Raphael’s friend. Another significant influence was Leonardo Da Vinci, who returned to Florence from 1500 to 1506. Da Vinci’s influence saw Raphael’s works gain a more dynamic element, distant from previous tranquil subjects. Raphael is also said to have engaged in drawing studies of naked fighting men, which was a popular trend among Florentine painters at the time.
Raphael toyed with some Da Vinci’s techniques. A series of his famous easel paintings came from Leonardo’s compositional invention of the pyramidal Holy Family. There is a drawing by Raphael of Leonardo’s lost masterpiece, Leda and the Swan (1505-07), from which he is said to have adapted the contrapposto pose for his Saint Catherine of Alexandria, as well as later paintings. Raphael also perfected Leonardo’s sfumato painting, a technique that effectively allowed for a smoother transition from light to dark areas. He mostly used it to give subtlety to the human skin. There is a painting by Raphael that uses the same pyramidical composition as the Mona Lisa but is still faithful to the graceful and tender element of Perugino. The interplay of eye contact and the subtle technique of directing the audience’s gaze around the painting was also borrowed and perfected from Da Vinci. It is an element commonly used in Raphael’s Roman period paintings such as the Triumph of Galatea (c. 1514) and The Transfiguration (1516–20).
Raphael was eventually forced to leave Florence and return to his hometown of Urbino, where everything was in disorder following the deaths of his parents. During his time there he did two Madonnas and a painting of Christ with Apostles for Guidobaldo da Montefeltro (January 17, 1472 – April 10, 1508). Guidobaldo was a military captain and Duke of Urbino, then-busy fleeing the armies of Cesare Borgia for having betrayed his father Pope Alexander VI (January 01, 1431 – August 18, 1503) by taking arms against Charles VIII of France (June 30, 1470 – April 07, 1498) of France during the invasion of southern Italy. The Portrait of Guidobaldo da Montefeltro (1506) was initially attributed to other artists before it became recognized as a work of Raphael in 1905.
The Renaissance in Rome
The year 1503 was drowned in calamities as it saw the deaths of two Popes: Alexander VI, and his successor Pius III (May 29, 1439 – October 18, 1503). Tides of war and instability brought forth significant changes, and when Pope Julius II (December 05, 1443 – February 21, 1513) came to power, these changes started to get visible. Julius commissioned the destruction and re-inauguration of St. Peter’s Basilica, as well as countless building projects throughout Rome. His papacy, marked by his patronage of the arts and vigorous political activity, proved crucial in bringing the Renaissance to Rome.
Julius invited Raphael to the city, possibly at the suggestion of an Italian architech, Donato Bramante (1444 – March 11, 1514), who was then working on the new St. Peter’s. Bramante came from just outside Urbino and was a distant relative of Raphael. At that time, the entire Vatican territory was occupied by artists working on paintings, frescoes, and building the fundament for the new St. Peter’s. The purpose was to efface every contribution that the loathed Alexander IV made to the Vatican.
Upon arrival in 1508, Raphael was commissioned by Julius II to fresco what was intended to be the Pope’s private rooms where he lived and worked. These medium-sized rooms are called the “Stanze,” better known as the Raphael Rooms, and they can be found on the upper floor of the Vatican palace. To make Raphael start working on a fresco, the Pope had to sacrifice the works of Piero Della Francesca, Luca Signorelli, and Perugino, which accommodated the rooms previously. Raphael started by painting the middle chamber or the “Stanza Della Segnatura” which contained the Pope’s private library. This room features some of the most prominent of the young artist’s works, including The Parnassus (1511), The Disputation of the Sacrament (1509–1510), and the iconic The School of Athens (1509–1511).
Raphael has taken considerable influence from Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel ceiling during his time at the Vatican. Vasari said that Bramante had sneaked Raphael inside when the first portion of the scaffolding had been taken down in 1511. The Sistine Chapel ceiling upon its completion would become a masterpiece that made artists talking for decades, and Raphael seemed well fit to rise to the challenge of Michelangelo’s daunting force. He even made a reference in The School of Athens (c. 1509–1511) fresco, where he drew Michelangelo as Heraclitus – visibly inspired by the Sybils and Ignudi figures of the Sistine Ceiling. Michelangelo was known to be a rash, and difficult character to understand. There are instances where he even accused Raphael of plagiarism years after his death. In other cases, he gave more positive, generous reactions.
Rome: Gaining Fame
The death of Julius II did not have any impact on Raphael’s progress, and he kept working under the Medici Pope Leo X (December 11, 1475 – December 01, 1521). Although Leo was not as great as his predecessor, he was more distinctly fond of the arts. Raphael was on better terms with Leo than with Julius and continued receiving commissions from him. Leo even preferred the young painter’s charm and good manners over the independent and tempered nature of Michelangelo.
Upon completing the first room Raphael continued to the Stanza d’Eliodoro, which he mostly decorated, and the Stanza dell’Incendio, which was designed by him but mainly executed by his workshop. Upon completion, these vast and intricate works secured their place among the defining works of the High Renaissance. In the first two rooms, every painting was executed in the highest possible quality, and the reception was extremely positive. Since by that time Raphael was busy with large amounts of work, he could not be entirely present during the execution of the last two Stanze. The workshop did the rest of the rooms and most of the paintings, including those that depict dramatic action, were not as successful in conception or execution.
During that time, Raphael also painted a series of works of great Madonnas. In his works, Raphael’s transition from his Florentine to his Roman style is most evident. The Alba Madonna, painted in 1510, emphasizes the delicate sweetness and serenity of his Florentine style while adding a new level of emotional expression and technical intricacy to the pose. The Madonna di Foligno (1511) and the Sistine Madonna (1512) are typical of Raphael’s Roman period. The figures are rich in color and appear altogether to look confidently executed while still being inventive. The two angels or ‘cherubs’ leaning on the bottom of the Sistine Madonna have alone become prolific in Raphael’s works, fueling legends of their own. In 1912, an article in Fra Magazine says that the two cherubs were inspired by the children of his models who would come and watch him painting. Another story in St. Nicholas Magazine from 1912 protests by saying that the image came from when Raphael observed two random kids in the street who were “looking wistfully into the window of a baker’s shop.”
Apart from the Madonnas paintings, Raphael also made lots of portraits. He was even at one point considered the most important portraitist in Rome. His originality led him to establish a variety of unconventional means of delivering the portrait, as well as conceiving different psychological situations for his sitters, as in the case of the Portrait of Pope Leo X with two Cardinals (1518-1519). His most prominent work in the sphere is the Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione (1514–1515), a highly influential work and one of the great portraits of the Renaissance. Castiglione (December 06, 1478 – February 02, 1529) was a diplomat and humanist, a friend to Raphael, and a quintessential example of the High Renaissance gentleman. Castiglione was fond of Raphael’s works, saying that he was able to achieve the ‘sprezzatura,’ a term that he defines as “a certain nonchalance which conceals all artistry and makes whatever one says or does seem uncontrived and effortless…”
Life in Rome
In a letter to his uncle, Raphael describes his life in Rome: “…what spot on earth is more dignified than Rome? What enterprise is more dignified than St.Peter’s – the first temple of the world and the greatest piece of building that has ever been seen?” Raphael speaks of being fully satisfied and being unable to imagine himself living anywhere but Rome. His position as one of the great Renaissance painters has secured him a property in Rome, and income from St. Peter’s “never to fail so long as he lives.” Raphael speaks of future projects that would bring him “colossal revenue” and his friend Cardinal Bibbiena, to whose niece he was now engaged to. In doing so, he speaks of being proud to bring credit to his family and the lords of Urbino, to whom he also sends his best regards.
Applying Classical Influences
The Roman period of Raphael is also defined by his love for the ancient. An example would be the more secular fresco The Triumph of Galatea (c. 1514) that he painted for Agostino Chigi (November 29, 1466 – April 11, 1520), who was a banker and a patron, and one of the richest men to walk the earth at that age. The banker lived in the Villa Farnesina that is located on the banks of the Tiber river. It is a prominent example of a comfortable High Renaissance suburban villa, decorated by some of the greatest artists of the time. The lavish banquets at the Villa Farnesina were served with golden plates. When a banquet was over, Agostino Chigi tossed the golden plates into the Tiber river to impress the guests with his wealth. To do that trick, he had ordered servants to lay out nets on the bottom of the Tiber. They used the nets to pick up all the golden tableware downstream at night, cleaned them up and served them as the new ones at the next banquets.
The Villa Farnesina was nothing like a church, and it was not a place fit for being decorated with Biblical stories. It was a place to relax and drink. The rooms had depictions of astrological signs, and figures of Greek and Roman mythology. Individual decorations even made humorous illustrations of sexual intercourse between vegetables. This kind of artistic freedom was perfect for bringing out Raphael’s classical influences.
Galatea comes from a prominent figure in Greek mythology. She is depicted riding a shell-chariot to escape the Michelangelo-inspired sea creatures, with angles armed with bows intervening. Galatea’s body is shown twisted in an awkward contrapposto pose; her eyes fixed on an angel on the top left corner while she is grasping the ropes holding the dolphins, which appear to be drawn almost like an optical illusion. Vasari wrote that Raphael did not mean for Galatea to resemble any human being, but to resemble merely the image of ideal beauty.
Raphael was also a keen student of archeology and Greco-Roman sculpture, and his Roman works would see the synthesis of the Biblical stories with a visual representation of the ancient past. He would not only add his elements to Greek fable and decorate it the way he saw fit, but he would also dress the entire story of the Bible into a semi-pagan garb. This synthesis of paganism and Christianity is an image that is familiar to a modern understanding of religion, and one that speaks on the history of Rome and its culture.
Architecture and Other Projects
After Donato Bramante died in 1514, Raphael was trusted with the title of an architect for the new St. Peter’s Basilica. Although most of his work was either altered or demolished after Michelangelo’s design was accepted, some drafts remain. They depict a much more melancholic church from what it is today, with massive piers all the way down the nave.
St. Peter’s was not Raphael’s only venture in architecture. For a while, he had been regarded as the most influential architect in Rome, working for an inner-circle of the Papacy in the times of Julius II. The Pope had significant alterations to the street plan in Rome, and he was eager to fill out the newly opened spaces with grand palaces. One of Raphael’s buildings, The Palazzo Branconio dell’Aquila for Leo X, was completely leveled to make way for the large Bernini piazza in front of St. Peter’s. The one important architectural work of Raphael that remains is the chapel for Agostino Chigi in Santa Maria del Popolo; the same Agostino Chigi who owned the Villa Farnesina. The chapel is made out of exclusively rich marble and modeled after Bramante’s St. Peter’s designs. Raphael managed to do the mosaics in the dome, and the rest of the chapel saw completion at the hands of Gian Lorenzo Bernini, more than a century after Raphael’s death.
Raphael’s ventures into antiquity and his close friendship with Leo X eventually led Raphael to be put in charge of preserving marbles with valuable Latin inscriptions. Two years later in 1517, he was provided authorities as “Prefect” over all antiquities within Rome or a mile outside. The city was transforming radically at that time, with areas being cleared for new buildings and many Ancient Roman ruins popping up.
The Pope was keen on reusing old building stones as they proved to be a strong foundation – recycling building material was a common practice in the Renaissance. For example, many stones that had fallen from the Colosseum can be found today in the church of Santa Maria del Popolo. Raphael wanted to make sure that all these antiquities bearing ancient inscriptions were recorded and preserved before being reused. He even devised a street plan for Rome that would halt the destruction of many ancient monuments in favor of new Renaissance palaces.
After 1517, there is a small amount of Raphael present in his works as the workshop executed most of them. He would receive daily commissions for cartoons or frescoes, designs of ornaments; even various foreign Princes would send their ambassadors after Raphael, asking him to draw a portrait. Although he knew he was unable to take the order, he would accept it nonetheless, believing that he might eventually carry it out. At the same time, he was drawing designs for architecture, which were completed in his tranquil and serene tradition. At his position as “Prefect,” Raphael attended various excavations of antiquities throughout Rome. By this time, Raphael had been put in charge of virtually all artistic projects in the city, including architecture, paintings, and decoration, preserving antiquities. It was for the first time that Raphael was beginning to feel the immense pressure of his work.
The Transfiguration Painting
A great work of art emerged from the chaos, which was Raphael’s last painting. Raphael’s choice of striking hues, his inclusion of rhetoric-heavy antithesis, his mastery of the contrapposto and overall structure of the symbolic and literal relationships within his image, deliver The Transfiguration (1516–20) as one of the most complicated and prominent pieces of his time. With all of his influences combined, Raphael becomes a dramatic humanistic painter with a firm grip on physical appearance, and The Transfiguration stands as a culmination of everything he has learned. Vasari calls it the most beautiful and the most divine of all his works.
Interpretation of The Transfiguration
The central theme of this painting as suggested by the title is the transfiguration of Christ on the top of Mount Tabor, yet the idea of the picture was to combine it with a second story – the demonically possessed boy who is in need of healing. It is suggested that Raphael himself did not come up with this idea of combining two different Bible episodes, as it is an idea unsupported by any Christian art tradition. Instead, this innovation was a requirement by the Cardinal Giulio de Medici (May 26, 1478 – September 25, 1534), the later Pope Clement VII, who commissioned the work. The result of this combination is incredibly meaningful, of the demonic boy in a state of seizure and no one around him that can do anything, and above the apostles pointing to Christ. On the bottom scene, everybody is trying to help without success. Even though St. Andrew has his book of laws open, mere laws will not help. According to John 4:24, only true faith can cure the boy: “God dwelleth not in temples made with hands, but those who would approach Him must do it in spirit and in truth.”
Historical Facts of The Transfiguration
The first mentions of this drawing come from letters of January 19, 1517 and July 02, 1518, which state that Raphael had not yet begun painting the piece. Shortly after Raphael died in 1520, Sebastian di Piombo said that he had seen the work in the Vatican although it was not complete. Raphael’s pupil Giulio Romano (c. 1499 – November 01, 1546) was not responsible for any significant additions and had only completed several unimportant parts in the lower section on the right. Romano still requested Giulio De’Medici (who commissioned the painting) to balance the payment between him and Raphael. In 1523, the painting was moved to San Pietro in Montorio (Rome) instead of its original destination in Narbonne, France.
In 1799, during Napoleon Bonaparte’s campaign in Italy, a significant amount of art was confiscated from the Vatican, sealed by the Treaty of Tolentino with Pope Pius VI (December 25, 1717 – August 29, 1799). Napoleon’s most sought after treasures were the works of Raphael, as he to him, was the greatest Italian artist and The Transfiguration the most exceptional work. Various French artists later commented on Raphael as being one of the representatives of the embodiment of French artistic ideals. Along with many other confiscated paintings, The Transfiguration hung in the Louvre during the wedding procession of Napoleon and Marie-Louise of Austria in 1810. With Napoleon’s fall, The Transfiguration along with about sixty-six other works was moved back to the Vatican sealed by the Treaty of Paris, and it now resides in the Pinacoteca Vaticana.
Personal Life and Death
Raphael’s personal life came into play during his final years. In 1517, Raphael moved to live in the Palazzo Caprini in the Borgo designed by Bramante. He was never married, but he was engaged to Maria Bibbiena, Cardinal Medici Bibbiena’s niece although he had many affairs. It seems he had a lack of enthusiasm for the marriage that may have been fueled by his dubious amounts of work. He was made “Groom of the Chamber” of the Pope, and also a knight of the Papal Order of the Golden Spur, both of which gave him more power and income. According to Vasari, he may have even played around with the idea of becoming a Cardinal, possibly after some encouragement from Leo X, and it could have also played a factor in delaying his marriage.
In his final years, Raphael had a permanent relationship with Margherita Luti, known as “La Fornarina.” She was the daughter of a baker from Siena, and Raphael is known to have spent his final days with her. Raphael’s death on “Good Friday” (April 06, 1520) had started with excessive amounts of sexual intercourse with Luti, after which Raphael fell ill with a fever. He did not tell his doctors the real cause of the fever and ended up treated with the wrong medicine that ultimately killed him.
Even in his illness, Raphael was composed enough to confess his sins, receive last rites, and put his affairs in order. He composed a will in which he left a lot of money for his mistress’s care, and most of his studio contents to two of his most trusted pupils – Giulio Romano and Penni. Raphael’s funeral at the Pantheon, made at his request, was a huge event attended by large crowds. An antique style sculpture by Giulio Romano stands over his resting place with an inscription on the sarcophagus that translates from Latin to: “Here lies that famous Raphael by whom Nature feared to be conquered while he lived, and when he was dying, feared herself to die.”
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino was a talented Italian High Renaissance painter and architect. His life story was rich of favorable conditions that enabled him to complete some exquisite paintings and frescoes. He managed to organize a large and productive workshop during his lifetime and had a significant influence on the High Renaissance period. We hope you have enjoyed exploring Raphael biography and his success story, and it has inspired you to new inventions and discoveries.
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